Information System (IS) is a system designed for storing, searching and processing information. The IS also includes appropriate organizational resources (human, technical, financial, and so on) that provide and disseminate information.
Any information system is designed to provide people with information in a timely manner, that is, to meet specific information needs. At the same time, the result of the work of information systems is information products — documents, information arrays, databases and information services.
Information system operation principles
Understanding an information system implies that its integral components are data, technical and software, personnel and organizational support.
The concept of "information system" is widely interpreted by the federal law of the Russian Federation "On Information, Information Technologies and information Protection", meaning by an information system a set of information contained in a database, as well as information technologies and technical means that ensure the processing of this information.
M.R. Kogladovsky, a Russian scientist in the field of computer science, includes in the concept of "information system", in addition to data, software, hardware and human resources, also communication equipment, linguistic tools and information resources, which together form a system that provides "support for a dynamic information model of some part of the real world to meet the information needs of users", The Russian standard GOST RV 51987 means by IS "an automated system, the result of which is the presentation of output information for subsequent use."
Information system in organizations` activities
IS in the organization's activities is considered as software that implements a business strategy and business processes.
Ideally, it is the deployment of a single corporate IS that would satisfy the information needs of all employees, services and departments of the organization. In practice, the creation of such a system is too difficult or even impossible, and sometimes impractical, so organizations usually have several different systems that solve separate groups of tasks.
According to the degree of distribution, they are divided into:
- desktop, or local, ICS, in which all components are located on the same computer;
- distributed ICS, in which components are distributed across multiple computers.