Information technologies

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Technology is a set of methods and tools to achieve the desired result.

In a broad sense, technology is the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Technology is a relatively new, multifaceted term, the constant development of which does not allow us to give it an exact definition. By the beginning of the 20th century, the term "technology" encompassed a set of tools, processes and ideas in addition to tools and machines. By the middle of the century, the concept was defined as "the means or activities by which a person changes his environment and manipulates it."

Information technologies (IT) is a set of methods, software, hardware and technological tools that ensure the collection, accumulation, processing, storage, presentation and dissemination of information.

IT is also the techniques and methods of using computer technology in performing the functions of collecting, storing, processing, transmitting and using data. In addition, these are the resources necessary for the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of information.

History of information technology

People have been storing, extracting, processing and transmitting information since the invention of writing, but the term "information technology" in its modern sense first appeared in 1958. This new technology does not yet have a single generally accepted name. We will call it information (IT).

This definition consisted of three categories:

  1. processing methods;
  2. statistical and mathematical methods for decision-making;
  3. modeling higher-order thinking using computer programs.

Information technologies have been actively developing since the 1960s, along with the appearance of the first information systems.

IBM released the first hard drive in 1956 as a component of a computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard drives or optically on media.

Until 2002, most of the information was stored on analog devices, but that year the digital capacity exceeded the analog device for the first time.

It has been estimated that the world's storage capacity for information on electronic devices has grown from less than three exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling approximately every three years.

To date, IT has gone through several evolutionary stages, the change of which is mainly determined by the development of scientific and technological progress and the emergence of new technical means of information processing.